Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages

                                                                                                        UNDERGRADUATE HANDBOOK



The University of Jos is a Federal-owned university located within the city of Jos, the administrative headquarters of Plateau State. The University was first established as a campus of the University of Ibadan in 1971, but became a full-fledged tertiary institution in 1975. Academic programmes started at the Township Campus along Murtala Mohammed Way, Jos with pre-degree students in 1972. Since then, the University of Jos has witnessed both infrastructural growth and steady academic development, covering three campuses and several academic faculties, including Arts, Education, Engineering, Agriculture, Social Sciences, Management Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Law, Natural Sciences, Veterinary Medicine, Pharmaceutical Sciences, and the College of Health Sciences (which has the faculties of Basic Medical Sciences, Clinical Sciences, Health Sciences and Technology, and Dental Sciences). In addition, there is a Centre for Continuing Education, a General Studies Unit and a Remedial Sciences Department.  Courses are offered at pre-degree, undergraduate and postgraduate levels.

The Vice-Chancellors of the University from its inception are as follows: Prof. Gilbert O. Onuaguluchi, Prof. Emmanuel U. Emovon, Prof. Ochapa C. Onazi, Prof. M. Para Mallum, Prof. G. O. M. Tasie (Acting), Prof. Nenfort E. Gomwalk, Prof. Monday Y. Mangvwat, Prof. Sonni G.  Tyoden, Prof. Hayward B. Mafuyai, and the current Vice-Chancellor, Professor Seddi Sebastian Maimako, who began his tenure in June 2016.

The Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages is in the Faculty of Arts. It started as Department of Languages and Linguistics, which was established at the inception of the University of Jos as a campus of the University of Ibadan. It was one of the five departments making up the Faculty of Arts at its inception.

A degree programme in French was first introduced and later Linguistics was added. Eventually the Department offered four degree programmes, namely:

  1. B.A. (Honours) Linguistics
  2. B.A. (Honours) French
  3. B.A. (Combined Honours) French-Linguistics
  4. B.A. (Combined Honours) English-Linguistics

However, the Combined Honours courses were later discontinued.

A demerger of the Department took place in 2013. As a result, the Department adopted its current name – Department of Linguistics and Nigerian Languages, with a focus on the languages of Nigeria.

The Department has been administered from its inception under the headship of the following:

1. Dr. P. N. Uwajeh                (1972 – 1976)

2. Prof. W. A. Umezinwa       (1976 – 1983)

3. Dr. S. O. Aje                       (1983 – 1986)

4. Dr. V. O. Aire                     (1986 – 1989)

5. Dr. P. N. Uwajeh                (1989 – 1992)

6. Dr. A.O. Umeh                   (1992 – 1993)

7. Prof. V.O. Aire                   (1993 – 1995)

8. Prof. S. O. Aje                    (1995 – 1998)

9. Dr. A.O. Umeh                   (1998 – 2002)

10. Dr. T. Adejir                     (2002 – 2006)

11. Dr. U. K. Eke                    (2006 – 2007)

12. Mr. C. M. Kuju                (2004 – 2006)

13. Dr. O. M. Ogunkẹyẹ         (2007 – 2012)

14. Prof. A. Haruna                (2012 – 2016)

15. Dr. I. I. Akinrẹmi              (2016 – 2019)

16. Dr. P. V. Gomwalk           (2019 – Date)

In the former department, only two of the above were from the Linguistics Section, namely Dr. U. K. Eke, and Dr. O. M. Ogunkẹyẹ, under whose headship the demerger was achieved. Since the demerger, there have been three Heads of Department, namely Prof. A. Haruna, Dr. I. I. Akinrẹmi and Dr. P. V. Gomwalk.

In line with the stipulations of the Language Plan of Action for Africa, and coupled with the exigencies of the language proposal of the National Policy on Education, the Linguistics programme at the University of Jos was established in the 1976/77 session. The establishment of this programme was considered timely as it came at the wake of the nation’s consciousness to her numerous language problems. Prior to this era, Nigeria could neither be identified with any language geography nor did she have any idea about the number of languages that are spoken in her territory. In addition to the above, Nigeria, at that time, had only a handful of indigenous linguists who had very little to offer in terms of coping with the number of languages at hand and also in terms of  modern research in this area.

The study of Linguistics, particularly in this University was, therefore, expected to be primarily preoccupied with the provision of a pragmatic approach to the language issue of Nigeria which, apart from providing factual knowledge to students, will provide them with the enablement  for self sustenance and capacity-building as well as expose them to a diversity of Nigerian cultures, thus giving them a better understanding of themselves and making them better citizens for harmonious natural coexistence.

Linguistics aims at exposing the learner to a scientific and pragmatic study and analysis of the structure, role and function of language in a society with modern technologically advanced instruments.  The programme is framed such that it provides the student with a good language background both in English and selected Nigerian languages and a working knowledge of French. It thus equips the student with some theoretical background in Linguistics whose application to the study of Nigerian languages is essential. Students of Linguistics are trained for employment as competent language teachers, translators of texts from relevant foreign languages into Nigerian languages, especially textbooks, articles, etc., writers of dictionaries (an indispensable tool for any linguist or language teacher), producers of much needed texts and primers in Nigerian languages, transcribers of yet unwritten languages in Nigeria (this is especially vital to the survival of many rich “minority” languages which are in danger of extinction), reporters, newscasters and journalists.

Its final goals are thus to enrich the student’s capacity to comprehend the cultures and the societies around him/her, relate them with what obtains in other linguistic milieu and make him/her a disciplined and a better citizen who can protect the image of the country if and when the need arises.

The Department offers a Bachelor of Arts (Honours) degree in Linguistics. Students are normally admitted through UTME. Candidates seeking admission are expected to have at least five Credits at the School Certificate or G.C.E. Ordinary Level at not more than two sittings. The credits must include English Language and Mathematics for all candidates; at least a Pass in a foreign or Nigerian language would be an advantage. There is no provision for Direct Entry. Candidates admitted for direct entry into Linguistics must join the four-year programme at 100 Level. In addition, they should satisfy UTME requirements or have ‘O’ Level credits or equivalents in at least three other subjects.

A candidate is expected to register each year for a stipulated number of credits ranging from a minimum of 30 to a maximum of 48. These include compulsory courses from this Department as well as recommended electives from both within and outside the Department. The list of available courses for each year of study, both required and elective, are available to students at registration. In addition, all students must register for and pass all the required courses in General Studies to qualify for a degree from the University.

The grading system for examination purposes is as follows:

Letter Grade                                        Percentage

A                                                          70 - 100

B                                                         60 - 69

C                                                         50 - 59

D                                                         45 - 49

E                                                          0 - 44

For the computation of results, Grade Points (not raw marks) are used as follows:

A         =          5

B         =          4

C         =          3

D         =          2

E          =          0

All years count equally. There is no proportionate weighting. Students’ results are based on a 4-year cumulative performance. A student’s performance is expressed in terms of Grade Point Average (GPA). The GPA is calculated by multiplying the Grade Point (GP) attained in each course by the number of units assigned to that course and then adding them up and dividing by the number of credit units registered for the session. The Cumulative Grade Point Average CGPA) is obtained by multiplying the total number of GPs by the respective credits and dividing by the total number of credit units for all courses registered by the student.

                              CGPA                              CLASS OF DEGREE

                        4.50 – 5.00                              First Class

                        3.50 – 4.49                              Second Class, Upper Division

                        2.40 – 3.49                              Second Class, Lower Division

                        1.50 – 2.39                              Third Class

0.00 – 1.49                              Fail

Only those students who have attended 75% of the lectures given are qualified to write the examination in any given course. Each course is examined at the end of the semester in which it is taught. The final year examination takes the following form:

             i. A written examination based on the course;

             ii. A research project which should be written in the field of

Linguistics (graded on the basis of 60% content and 40% oral defence).

Students are required to observe appropriate rules and regulations during all examinations within and outside the Department. The following, in addition to those specified in the University of Jos Revised Examination Regulations and Guidelines (See Appendix), must be observed:

  1. Students are expected to provide the following compulsory items for identification:
  1. University of Jos Students Identification Card (ID Card)
  2. Original copy of School Fees Receipt
  3. Original copy of Course Registration Form, duly signed and stamped.

Students are, therefore, advised to come to the examination halls with these requirements, or they will be prevented from writing the examination.       

  1. Students are warned NOT to come to the examination venues with books, bags handsets, laptops, iPads, iPhones, digital wristwatches, etc.  These are prohibited items during exams.  Any student who contravenes these examination rules and regulations will be punished and any items seized will not be released to the student.

Continuous Assessment is mandatory for all years of study and it carries a score of 40% while the end of course examination has 60%. Each course must be examined at the end of the semester in which it is taught.


A student whose CGPA is below 1.50 at the end of a particular year of study will be put on probation for one year. At the end of that period if the student cannot make a CGPA of at least 1.00, he or she shall be asked to withdraw from the programme. The student shall still have the option of transferring to another programme within the University.

The minimum number of years to be spent in order to qualify for a first degree is four years. No student may exceed an additional 50% of the stipulated minimum period.



COURSE CODE       COURSE TITLE                                          CREDIT UNITS


Core courses

LNL 111                     Introduction to Linguistics I                                       2

LNL 112                     Introduction to General Phonetics I                            2

LNL 113                     Elements of Grammar I                                              2

LNL 114                     Languages of the World                                             2

Required Elective

FLF 110                      Introduction to French for Non-Majors I                    2

Departmental Electives (minimum of 2 credits)

LNH 115                     Introduction to Hausa I                                               2

LNY 116                     Introduction to Yoruba I                                             2

LNI 117                      Introduction to Igbo I                                                 2

Required Courses (General Studies)

GST 101                     Use of English                                                            4

GST 102                     Philosophy and Logic                                                 2

Electives from other departments (minimum of 4 credits)

ENG 120                     English Composition I                                                3

SOC 111                     Introduction to Sociology                                           4

PSY 115                      Learning Process                                                        4                                                                                                                                                          23


Core courses

LNL 121                     Introduction to Linguistics II                                      2

LNL 122                     Introduction to General Phonetics II                          2

LNL 123                     Elements of Grammar II                                             2

LNL 124                     History of Linguistics                                                2

Required Elective

FLF 120                      Introduction to French for Non-Majors II                  2

Departmental Electives (minimum of 2 credits)

LNH 125                     Introduction to Hausa II                                             2

LNY 126                     Introduction to Yoruba II                                           2

LNI 127                      Introduction to Igbo II                                                2

Required Courses (General Studies)

GST 103                     Nigerian People and Culture                                      2

GST 104                     History and Philosophy of Science                            2


TOTAL                                                                                                         40


COURSE CODE       COURSE TITLE                                          CREDIT UNITS


Core courses

LNL 211                     Introduction to Phonology                                          2

LNL 212                     Introduction to Syntax I                                              2

LNL 213                     Introduction to Morphology                                       2

LNL 214                     Writing Systems and Graphic Representations         2        

LNL 215                     Introduction to Orthography Design                          2         

Required Elective

FLF 210                      Intermediate French for Non-Majors I                       2         

Departmental Electives (minimum of 2 credits)

LNH 215                      Hausa Grammar I                                                      2           

LNY 216                     Yoruba Grammar I                                                     2

LNI 217                       Igbo Grammar I                                                         2

Electives from other departments (minimum of 4 credits)

SOC 220                     Sociology of the Family                                             4 

PSY 216                      Developmental Psychology                                        4

ENG 220                     English Composition II                                               3

Required Courses (General Studies)

GST 222                     Peace and Conflict Resolution Studies                      2



Core courses

LNL 221                     The Phonetics of English and Nigerian Languages   2

LNL 222                     Introduction to Syntax II                                             2

LNL 223                     Morphologies of African Languages                          2

LNL 224                     Introduction to Semantics                                          2  

LNL 225                     Phonemic Analysis                                                     2         

Required Elective

FLF 220                      Intermediate French for Non-Majors II                      2

Departmental Electives (minimum of 2 credits)

LNH 225                     Hausa Grammar    II                                                   2

LNY 226                     Yoruba Grammar   II                                                  2  

LNI   227                     Igbo Grammar   II                                                      2

Required Courses (General Studies)

GST 223                     Entrepreneurship Studies                                           2


 TOTAL                                                                                                        38


COURSE CODE                   COURSE TITLE                              CREDIT UNITS                                            


Core courses

LNL 311                     Generative Syntax I                                                    2

LNL 312                     Survey of Applied Linguistics                                     2

LNL 313                     Generative Phonology                                                 2

LNL 314                     Advanced Semantics                                                  2

LNL 315                     Field Methods and Research Methodology                 2

Required Elective

FLF 310                      Advanced French for Non-majors I                            2

Departmental Electives (minimum of 2 credits)

LNH 315                     Advanced Hausa I                                                       2

LNY 316                     Advanced Yoruba I                                                     2

LNI 317                      Advanced Igbo I                                                         2

Electives from other departments (maximum of 8 credits from this section for 2 semesters)

SOC 320                     Women in Society                                                      2

SOC 321                     Sociology of Non-Violent Change                             2

SOC 324                     Sociology of Education                                              2

PSY 319                      Cognitive Psychology                                                 4

ENG 314                     African Fiction                                                           3


Core courses

LNL 321                     Generative Syntax II                                                   2

LNL 322                     Introduction to Sociolinguistics                                  2

LNL 323                     Introduction to African Linguistics                            2

LNL 324                     Error and Contrastive Analysis                                   2

LNL 325                     Field Linguistics                                                         2

Required Elective

FLF 320                      Advanced French for Non-Majors II                          2

Departmental Electives (minimum of 2 credits)

LNH 325                     Advanced Hausa II                                                     2

LNY 326                     Advanced Yoruba II                                                   2

LNI 327                      Advanced Igbo II                                                        2

                                                                        TOTAL                                  36


COURSE CODE       COURSE TITLE                              CREDIT UNITS      


Core courses

LNL 411                     Topics in Phonology I                                                2

LNL 412                     Topics in Syntax I                                                       2

LNL 413                     Problems of a Multilingual Nation                             2

LNL 414                     Semantics and Pragmatics                                          2

LNL 415                     Historical and Comparative Linguistics I                   2

LNL 416                     Dialectology                                                               2

LNL 417                     Psycholinguistics                                                        2

LNL 418                     Research Methods                                                      2

Required Elective

FLF 410                      Advanced French for Non-Majors III                         2


Core courses

LNL 421                     Topics in Phonology II                                               2

LNL 422                     Topics in Syntax II                                                     2 

LNL 423                     Lexicography                                                              2

LNL 424                     Advanced Sociolinguistics                                         2

LNL 425                     Historical and Comparative Linguistics II                  2

LNL 426                     Research Project/Long Essay                                     4

Required Elective

FLF 420                      Advanced French for Non-Majors IV                        2

                                                                        TOTAL                                  34



LNL 111 Introduction to Linguistics I (2 Credits)

This course seeks to explain what Linguistics is about, its scope, its application, as well as to examine language, its nature and relation to animal language, relationship to culture and structure. Students will learn about the structure of language at different levels of organisation: sounds, syllables, words, phrases and sentences as well as how human language is permanently recorded through writing.

LNL 112 Introduction to General Phonetics I (2 Credits)

This course provides a general introduction to phonetics as a part of Linguistics.  It covers the nature of the speech-producing mechanism, articulatory phonetics, practice in the recognition, reproduction, and transcription of speech sounds as well as their classification.

LNL 113 Elements of Grammar (2 Credits)

This is an introduction to basic grammatical concepts.  It is aimed at improving the students’ expressive and communication abilities. It uses a combination of traditional and modern approaches to grammar to improve the student's knowledge of the English language. The course covers a wide range of topics, including traditional grammar (parts of speech and sentence diagramming), and composition..

LNL 114 Languages of the World (2 Credits)

This course introduces students to the study of the world’s major languages including the typological and genetic classification of the languages. It shows the relationship between language and culture, natural and artificial languages, language vitality and language death.

LNH 115 Introduction to Hausa I (2 Credits)

This course aims to acquaint students with the Hausa people and the Hausa language. Particular attention will be paid to the legendary and historical traditions of the origin of the Hausa people (including those of Barth, Johnston, Smith, Leo Africanus, Ibn Batuta, Aminu Kano), the economic, political and religious patterns of the Hausa, as well as their relationship with other ethnic groups, particularly those surrounding them. The place of Hausa as an Afro-asiatic language, as well as its relationship with other Chadic languages, the nature of standard Hausa, its history, development, and the standardization of its orthographic conventions, and the major Hausa dialects, are other areas to be covered.

LNY 116 Introduction to Yoruba I (2 Credits)

This is an introductory course which aims to familiarise non-Yoruba speakers with the Yoruba language and people.  It acquaints the students with the historical evolution of the Yoruba people as well as their sociolinguistic profile. Other areas to be covered include the status of the Yoruba language in Nigeria, its dialects, and genetic affinity with other languages. Attention will be paid to the orthography of the language, focusing on consonants, vowels and tones as the principal components of the language’s writing system. The students will also be acquainted with the classification of Yoruba sounds on the basis of articulatory parameters.

LNI 117 Introduction to Igbo I       (2 Credits)

This course is designed to introduce Igbo to non-Igbo speakers. It covers areas such as the Igbo language area, classification of Igbo by language family, dialects of Igbo, Igbo orthography, Igbo phonology – consonants, vowels, vowel harmony, tone (lexical and grammatical) and tonal phenomena (downstep and downdrift).

LNL 121 Introduction to Linguistics II (2 credits)

This course is a continuation of LNL 111.  It will familiarise the students with linguistic concepts such as the phoneme, distinctive feature, morpheme, etc. and introduce them to linguistic methodology and a formal description of language.

LNL 122 Introduction to General Phonetics II   (2 credits)

This course is a continuation of LNL 112, which is a pre-requisite.  LNL 122 includes an introduction to acoustics and phonetics, and a study of the non-segmental features of speech such as tone, stress and intonation.  In addition, the students will acquire knowledge in a practical way through the study, analysis and transcription of the speech sounds of languages (preferably African) they are familiar with.

LNL 123   Elements of Grammar II   (2 credits)

This is a continuation of LNL 113 as described above. Emphasis will be laid on a detailed study and analysis of basic grammatical units (morpheme, word, phrase, clause, sentence etc.) and their functions.  It will also include word building derivation, composition and inflexions.

LNL 124 History of Linguistics       (2 credits)

This course provides the knowledge of the historical development of Linguistics as a scientific discipline from the Greek days to the present.  It focuses on the outstanding names of those who have helped to shape the discipline of linguistics.  Attention is also paid to contributions to language study by Nigerian linguists and institutions.

LNH 125 Introduction to Hausa II (2 Credits) 

This is a continuation of LNH 115. The course studies Hausa phonetics (the organs of speech, place and manner of articulation, the state of the glottis; and the overall Hausa sound classification) and phonology (the phoneme, syllabication and hints on morphophonemic changes).

LNY 126 Introduction to Yoruba II   (2 Credits)

This course is the continuation of LNY 116. It extensively focuses on the concept, function and significance of tone in Yoruba, the syllabic structure and typology of Yoruba, as well as the phenomenon of vowel harmony in the language. The course also covers such areas as word classes and their sub-classifications, e.g. nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions and conjunctions, with emphasis on the function criterion as the basis for grouping words into lexical categories. Yoruba ideophones will also be introduced to the students at this stage.

LNI 127 Introduction to Igbo II (2 Credits)

This course is a continuation of LNI 117. It covers such areas as Igbo word classes and subdivisions within the major classes: verbs (simple, complex, stative, active, etc.), pronouns (subject, object, possessive, reflexive, etc.), verbal inflection (tenses and aspect), and derivational processes associated with verbs.

.200 LEVEL

LNL 211 Introduction to Phonology I (2 Credits)

This course is a general introduction to Phonology in which the relationship between Phonetics and Phonology in a structural framework and the principles of phonology are discussed.  It includes the basic tenets and analysis based on the phonemic theory, the distinctive feature theory and generative phonology.

LNL 212 Introduction to Syntax I  (2 credits)

This course is an introduction to the analysis of the sentence (as a unit of linguistic description) into parts and the grammatical description of the parts.  It is a practical-oriented course in which the students are exposed to the skills, techniques and formalisms in syntactic description/analysis.

LNL 213 Introduction to Morphology I (2 Credits)

In this course an introduction to morphology is given situating the level in its relationship to Phonology and Syntax within a structural framework.  The course also examines the identification of morphemes, their classification, (e.g. root or affix, inflectional or derivational), and morphological typology (e.g. isolating, agglutinative, fusional languages). This course will also explore some issues concerning the internal structure of words. After a brief introduction to some basic terms and concepts, we will discuss the interaction of morphology with phonology. We will look both at how morphology conditions phonological rules and how phonology conditions morphology. Then we will turn to the interaction of syntax and morphology. We will look at some problems raised by inflectional morphology, clitics and compounds.

LNL 214 Writing Systems & Graphic Representations (2 Credits)

The aim of this course is to introduce the students to the relation between language and writing and to situate this in the context of the need of a developing technological and literate society.  This will be done by examining a variety of topics including the relationship between spoken and written language and literacy.

LNL 215 Introduction to Orthography Design (2 Credits)

A practical course focusing on the role of the linguist in designing orthography for an unwritten language, the historical origin of writing in Sumeria, Egypt, China, and Mesoamerica; the transmission of writing across languages and cultures, including the route from Phoenician to Greek to Etruscan to Latin to English; the development of individual writing systems over time; the traditional classification of written symbols (ideographic, logographic, syllabic, alphabetic); methods of decipherment; differences between spoken and written language; how linguistic structure influences writing, and is reflected by it; social and political aspects of writing; literacy and the acquisition of writing. Students will get a practical exposure to an unwritten language based principally on the framework of the Orthographies of Nigeria published by the National Language Centre, Lagos.

LNH 215 Hausa Grammar 1 (2 Credits)

The focus of the course is on the nature and functions of Hausa grammar. Topics will include the Hausa nominal (noun, pronoun, adjective), with emphasis on syntactic and semantic characteristics, the internal and contextual structures of Hausa non-adverbials, the syntactic functions of non-adverbials within the Hausa nominal phrase, the distinction between verbs and other verbals, changing and unchanging verbs, transitive and intransitive verbs – the nuances in their meanings and their syllabic structures(mono-syllabic, di-syllabic verbs) and the Hausa verb, verb classifications (e.g., Parson’s “grade” system) and the verb phrase.

LNY 216   Yoruba Grammar 1 (2 Credits)

This course is an introduction to Yoruba morphology. Attention will be paid to the various morphological processes attested in the language and how they are productively employed to derive new words from existing ones. Such processes include affixation (prefixation, interfixation, suprafixation), compounding, reduplication, desententialisation, refashioning/calquing, and borrowing.

LNI 217    Igbo Grammar 1 (2 Credits)

This course is organised to give a wider scope of the language and its underlying structures to would-be linguists of Igbo.  Emphasis therefore is on the study and critical examination of grammatical structures as well as the implications of tones and tonal modification in grammar. Areas to be covered include sentence types and functions (statements, questions, and commands), changes in grammatical structure, phrase structure (with emphasis on major phrase types such as noun phrase, verb phrase, prepositional phrase, etc.).

LNL 221    The Phonetics of English and Nigerian Languages (2 Credits)

This is a more detailed phonetic description, classification and analysis of the sounds of the English language in conjunction with those of a selected number of Nigerian languages.

LNL 222   Introduction to Syntax II (2 Credits)

This is a continuation of LNL 212. It introduces current syntactic theory, covering the principles that govern phrase structure (the composition of phrases and sentences), movement (dependencies between syntactic constituents), and binding (the interpretation of different types of noun phrases). Although much of the evidence discussed in the class will come from English, evidence from other languages will also play an important role, in keeping with the comparative and Universalist perspective of modern syntactic theory.

LNL 223   Morphologies of African Languages (2 Credits)

Pre-requisite: LNL 213. This course aims at the application of the knowledge acquired in LNL 213 to the analysis of the morphologies of selected African Languages.

LNL 224   Introduction to Semantics (2 Credits)

This course will introduce students to the various attitudes to meaning (philosophical, linguistic and psychological). It will examine the semantic features of English words, phrases and sentences with the aim of facilitating comprehension in the language. It will also examine the basic role of grammar in language use, and the questions of ambiguities of structure and meaning.

LNL 225   Phonemic Analysis (2 Credits)

This is a practical course that focuses on the role of the linguist in providing a phonemic inventory for a language, an important first step in orthography design. The course examines the different views of the phoneme and their applications to language data. Attention will be paid to phonological theories, notably Trubetzkoy’s Theory of Distinctive Oppositions and Jakobson’s Theory of Distinctive features. The course will, in addition, examine the basic premises (assumptions) of phonemic analysis and the goals of phonemic analysis vis-à-vis the discovery procedures for establishing phonemes. The students will be exposed to practical exercises in phonemic analysis aimed at testing their understanding of the concepts and assumptions earlier learned.

LNH 225 Hausa Grammar II (2 Credits)

The course is a continuation of LNH 215.It will include a general survey of the theory of morphology, with reference to, and exemplification from, Hausa, the morpheme and its various realisations, the affix and its place in the word-building process, a general overview of Hausa sentence structure, the smaller components of sentences (such as nominal and verbal phrases and clauses, the classification of sentences on the basis of function (active and passive, declarative and interrogative, affirmative and negative) and on the basis of structure (simple, compound and complex). At this stage, students are also introduced to the study and appreciation of the Hausa narrative (oral and literate, long and short, simple and complex) and the various indigenous sub-types of Hausa narrative. They will also be encouraged to produce creative and natural narratives in oral and written form. This is to prepare them for the advanced level course in Hausa, which they will encounter at their third year.

LNY 226 Yoruba Grammar II (2 Credits)

This course is the continuation of LNY 216. It is designed to give a wider scope to the structure of Yoruba. Thus, the language’s grammatical structures will be critically examined, specifically the noun phrase, verb phrase, adjectival phrase, and prepositional/adverbial phrase. In addition, sentence constructions such as declarative, interrogative, imperative, simple, compound, complex, and verb serialisation structures will form part of the course content.

LNI 227 Igbo Grammar II (2 Credits)

This course is a continuation of LNI 217 as described above. It covers advanced aspects of the grammar such as complex structures (co-ordination subordination, relative clauses, serial verb construction). At this stage an introduction to Igbo literature will be made. This will include the study of proverbs, folklore and myths. Students will be expected to be able to read and understand simple texts in Igbo at this stage.


LNL 311 Generative Syntax I (2 Credits)

Pre-requisite: LNL 222.  This course is an introduction to the history, theory and practice of the generative transformational model with emphasis on the explanation of the basic assumptions and concepts postulated in the model (e.g. deep and surface structure, base and transformational rules, the lexicon) and practical applications of these concepts and assumptions in the analysis of phonological, morphological and syntactic data.

LNL 312 Survey of Applied Linguistics (2 credits)

This is a survey course on how, where and when general linguistics can be applied both for practical uses and to non-linguistic fields.  Such uses include language teaching and language testing, language standardization, planning and development, the creation of orthographies and compilation of dictionaries; language perception and language impairment.

LNL 313 Generative Phonology I (2 Credits)

This is an introduction to the principles of generative phonology and the theory of distinctive features.  Emphasis is on the treatment of phonological processes and rules within the generative framework including tonological processes and rules.

LNL 314 Advanced Semantics I (2 Credits)

This course introduces the components and formal mechanisms underlying meaning in human language and uses them as a window on the human mind, its psychological development and adult cognitive processes. Topics include what kinds of concepts a noun or a determiner can encode; how children learn the meaning of words; how these "atoms" of meaning are combined in a mathematical procedure to yield the meaning of sentences; how semantic ambiguities are processed psychologically; and the development of a theory of mind. Formal tools from Set Theory and Predicate Logic will be introduced and applied both to the linguistic and to the cognitive characterization of meaning.

LNL 315 Field Methods and Research Methodology (2 Credits)

This course and LNL 418, 426 are complementary.  Here, the student is taught how best to carry out research the gathering of data and the writing of the grammar of a language totally new to him.  The problems, both practical and theoretical, connected with field work are discussed.  Simple research from different information is undertaken and the students’ methods critically analysed.  Students are also introduced to research methods and project design.

LNH 315 Advanced Hausa I (2 Credits)

The course introduces students to the vast and rich literature of the Hausa. The typology of the literature (oral and written genres), as well as other sub-genres (poetry, prose and drama), would be pursued vis-à-vis illustrations of content, style and structure. The course also covers Hausa traditional drama, its genesis and development to date, the changing roles of dramatic performances (wasa). Attention will also be paid to some selected plays and modern Hausa drama, its various backgrounds, developments and types of Hausa drama and the relationship between Hausa drama and other dramatic performances and literary genres.

LNY 316 Advanced Yoruba I (2 Credits)

This course is aimed at introducing Yoruba literature (oral and written, prose and poetry) to the students. It will include the study of Yoruba proverbs, idioms, folklore, folktales and myths.  Literary texts written in Yoruba will also be recommended at this stage, with a view to identifying cultural and literary features inherent in the texts.

LNI 317 Advanced Igbo I (2 Credits)

At this stage more emphasis will be laid on the study of specific areas in Igbo literature, culture, civilisation, worldview and community life.  This will occasionally be supplemented with exercises in conversation, dictation and comprehension. More advanced texts will be introduced at this stage.

LNL 321 Generative Syntax II (2 Credits)

This is a continuation of LNL 311 with more emphasis on grammatical structures and transformational rules.  Practical application of earlier stated concepts and assumptions in the analysis of phonological, morphological and syntactic data will be encouraged.

LNL 322 Introduction to Sociolinguistics (2 Credits)

This course provides an introduction to the history, methodology, basic concepts and applications of Sociolinguistics.  It considers the relationship between language and society, focusing attention on attitudes towards language varieties and social dialects, and the problems of multilingualism.  It includes discussion on the importance of language in relation to development.

LNL 323 Introduction to African Linguistics (2 Credits)

This course examines the findings of various works on African languages with special reference to information on structural characteristics both phonological and grammatical (e.g. tone and Bantu type noun classification).

LNL 324 Error and Contrastive Analysis (2 Credits)

This is an introduction to the principles, goals and practice of contrastive analysis and error analysis.

LNL 325 Field Linguistics (2 Credits)

Instruction and practice in primary linguistic research, i.e. the elicitation of linguistic data through direct work with a native speaker of a language not previously known to the students. Some reference materials may be consulted to supplement and direct the elicitation. The class will collaborate in producing a grammatical sketch and a small lexicon. This is a continuation of LNL 215 and is aimed at designing and developing orthography for unwritten languages.  Students will require fieldtrips in order to acquire practical experience in orthography design.

LNH 325 Advanced Hausa II (2 Credits)

The course is a continuation of LNH 315.It examines the general nature and the main issues in the study and appreciation of Hausa poetry. It introduces the basic terms and concepts of poetic criticism and the common features of the two traditions of Hausa Verse, their distinguishing characteristics, as well as their mutual influences. Aspects of history, text and context are also highlighted, leading to practical appreciation of a representative selection of whole Hausa songs and poems. The course also covers scholarship on proverbs and the application of proverbs (Hausa peremiology) for literary and interpretative endeavours, and explores the content, structure, style and the indispensability of Hausa karin magana (proverb) within the other genres of Hausa literature, and its significance in studying the worldview of the Hausa. The figurative usage of language (metaphor, simile, personification, symbolism, allegory) in embellishing language will also be covered.

LNY 326 Advanced Yoruba II (2 Credits)

This course is a continuation of LNY 316. The recommended literary texts will be extensively treated, with more emphasis on literary appreciation of the texts. The course is also designed for the students to be practically engaged in the use of Yoruba in oral and written forms.

LNI 327 Advanced Igbo II (2 Credits)

This is a continuation of LNI 317Recommended literary texts are introduced at this stage to afford the students more practice in reading, comprehension and expression (dictation and free essay writing).


LNL 411 Topics in Phonology I (2 Credits)

This course examines selected topics of relevance or currency such as tone, stress, vowel harmony, rule ordering, auto-segmental phonology etc.

LNL 412 Topics in Syntax I (2 Credits)

This course examines the syntactic treatment of topics of relevance and currency.  Recommended for inclusion are pronominalisation, complement structures, case marking, thematic roles and theta marking, negation, grammatical categories (e.g. tense, aspect, etc.).

LNL 413 Problems of a Multilingual Nation (2 Credits)

In a multilingual nation such as Nigeria, there are a variety of linguistic issues, which have social, cultural and even political implications.  These include the problems of national language, official orthographies, languages to be taught in schools and the general problems of language policy and language planning.  These problems are identified, studied and analysed in the course.

LNL 414 Semantics and Pragmatics (2 Credits)

Prerequisite: LNL 314. This course gives an introduction to the science of linguistic meaning. Semantics is the study of conventional "compositional" meaning and pragmatics, the study of interactional meaning. Therefore, emphasis will be on the formal theories of context-dependency, (reference, sense, deixis) presupposition, implicature, speech acts, context-change, focus and topic. There will be a special emphasis on the division of labour between semantics and pragmatics – linguistic meaning versus speaker meaning.

LNL 415 Historical and Comparative Linguistics I (2 Credits)

This course provides a general introduction to the subject of language classification, touching upon such matters as language change, reconstruction, classification and different methods of use.  These are applied in the classification of African languages.

LNL 416 Dialectology (2 Credits)

This is a study of the theory of dialect differentiation together with practical application to the language(s) of the area in which the University is situated.

LNL 417 Psycholinguistics (2 Credits)

This course presents the psycholinguist’s account of language and the relationship between language and mind.  Topics covered include language acquisition and language learning, language thinking and cognition; linguistic performance and behaviour, production and comprehension, language impairment.

LNL 418  Research Methods (2 Credits)

Students are introduced to research methods and project design. Focus is on data analysis, design and final presentation of finished work. The students are introduced to the different style sheets (MLA, APA) with emphasis on the recommended style sheet for the programme.

LNL 421 Topics in Phonology II (2 Credits)

This course is a continuation of LNL 411. Other relevant topics in phonology will be treated, in addition to tone, stress, vowel harmony, rule ordering and auto-segmental phonology.

LNL 422 Topics in Syntax II (2 Credits)  

This course examines the syntactic treatment of topics of relevance and currency from the various schools of thought.  In addition to topics such as pronominalization, complement structures, case marking, thematic roles and theta marking, negation, grammatical categories, the course may cover other relevant topics such as the X-bar theory, government, binding and bounding/subjacency.

LNL 423 Lexicography (2 Credits)

This course provides a general introduction to words and dictionary making, writing of unwritten languages, phonemic transcription, entries, definitions, frequency and rank, cross references, lexical and semantic fields and types of classification and presentation (mono-, bi- and multilingual glossaries and dictionaries, encyclopaedia, specialised glossaries, frequency dictionaries.)

LNL 424 Advanced Sociolinguistics (2 Credits)

As a follow-up of LNL 322 - Introduction to Sociolinguistics, this course deals with more detailed analysis of language problems as they relate to society.  With the aid of already acquired models, greater emphasis will be laid on the Nigerian situation in comparison with other multilingual politics.

LNL 425 Historical and Comparative Linguistics II (2 Credits)

This is a continuation of LNL 415 above. This course provides a general introduction to the subject of language classification, touching upon such matters as phylogenetic relationships, mass comparisons, comparative method, language change, reconstruction, classification and different methods of use. The main aim is to document the nature and extent of phonological and morphological configurations of some African languages in order to establish the closest and the most coherent groupings on a scientific basis

LNL 426 Research Project/Long Essay (4 Credits)

The student's maturity in Linguistics should be reflected in this course.  Under the direction and supervision of a lecturer, the student is expected to choose a research area of his/her interest within which a specific topic will be decided upon with the assistance of the supervisor.  The finished project must be presented in a departmentally approved format.











P. V. Gomwalk

B.A., M.A., PhD


Sociolinguistics, Historical and Comparative Linguistics, Hausa

Senior Lecturer & Head of Dept.


A. Haruna

B.A., M.A., PhD


Phonetics, Phonology, Historical and Comparative Linguistics


(Leave of Absence)  


O. M. Ogunkẹyẹ


B.A., M.A., PhD

Diplome d'études Françaises


Morphology, Syntax, Semantics, Applied Linguistics



A. H. Amfani

B.A., M.A., PhD



Professor (Visiting)


I. I. Akinrẹmi

B.A., M.A., PhD


Syntax, African Linguistics, Contact Linguistics, Igbo



L. N. Danjuma

B.A., M.A., PhD


Syntax, Morphology, Field Linguistics

Senior Lecturer


A. Nuhu 

B.A., PGDE, M.A., PhD


Applied Linguistics, Sociolinguistics, Hausa

Senior Lecturer (Sabbatical)


B. S. Y. Alhassan

B.A., M.A., PhD


Syntax, African Linguistics, Psycholinguistics

Senior Lecturer (Visiting)


N. L. Dadu’ut

B. A., M. A., PhD



Senior Lecturer (Adjunct)


Y. O. Aremu

B. A., M. A., PhD



Senior Lecturer (Adjunct)


E. N. Dami

B. A., M. A., PhD



Lecturer I



J. K. Makpu

B. A., M. A., MPhil/PhD



Lecturer I



A. E.  Dugga

B.A., M.A.


Sociolinguistics, Phonetics

Lecturer I


V. I. N. Isha

B.A., M.A.


Phonology, Orthography Design, Phonetics

Lecturer II


P. N. Dajang

B.A., M.A.


Morphology, Semantics

Lecturer II


C. N. Anyanwu

B.A., M.A., PGDE


Syntax, Igbo

Asst. Lecturer


M. E. Oyinloye

B.A., M.A.


Phonology, Phonetics, Language Documentation, Yoruba


Asst. Lecturer







Name of Staff




Mrs. Talatu Gideon Nyako

FSLC, Grade II, ND, HND Prin. Confidential Secretary I

Departmental Secretary


Mrs. Poewan P. Tunkuyo


Clerical Officer


Mrs. Zainab I. Maikampa

SSCE, Diploma

Computer Operator


Mrs. Deborah Gyang


Office Assistant


Mrs. Justina Arobalo

FSLC, Certificate in Audio Visual Technology

Senior Lab. Supervisor (On Contract)


Mr. Edward Okoko

SSCE, Diploma (Marketing), Diploma (French)

Senior Lab. Technician


Mrs. Nancy S. Agati

B. A. French

Technologist I